Category: What is TBI

What are the effects of a traumatic brain injury?

Any head injury can cause disruption of brain functions and can result in physical, cognitive, and psychosocial/emotional/interpersonaI impairment. Strokes often cause physical deficits such as hemiplegia (weakness or even paralysis on the side of the body opposite the side of the brain Read more

When will he/she wake up?

A head injury will frequently impact on the survivor’s initial level of consciousness. Level of consciousness is a continuum ranging from full alertness, drowsiness, lethargy, daze-like symptoms, to loss of consciousness or coma.

Loss of consciousness typically involves injuries to the brain stem, the oldest part of the brain, which is responsible for basic fife functions such as alertness, arousal, heartbeat, and breathing. Read more

How do we know how bad the head injury is?

A survivor’s degree of consciousness is often used to determine the severity of his/her brain injury. Instruments such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) use the survivor’s visual, motor, and verbal responsiveness to measure level of consciousness. A copy of the GCS can be found in our Glossary section. Read more

What will be the outcome?

The following are the main factors that have been found to predict long-term outcome for head injured survivors:

(a) Severity of cognitive deficits including memory and learning impairment, attention/concentration problems, arousal deficits, slowed mental processing, psychomotor retardation, executive function impairment (e.g., deficiencies in planning, organization, problem solving, judgment, abstract reasoning, sequencing, mental flexibility, and shifting mental set), visuoperceptual-motor deficits, eye-hand incoordination, language and communication disorders such as aphasia, reading comprehension impairment, initiation problems, and decreased general intellectual functioning. Read more

What can i do to improve the outcome of my head injured family member?

1. Cognitive Rehabilitation

An index measuring the degree to which head injured survivors were using the compensatory strategies which had been taught in their TBI rehabilitation program was the best predictor of long-term outcome. This finding validates the importance and effectiveness of teaching compensatory mechanisms in rehabilitation programs and suggests that most survivors could benefit from going through programs such as anĀ Outpatient Rehabilitation Program. It has also been found a negative relationship between length of time since discharge from rehabilitation program and compensatory strategy usage, which seems to indicate a need for periodic postprogram follow-up sessions to reinforce the usage of compensatory mechanisms. Read more

Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries

The number of children and adolescents in this country sustaining traumatic brain injuries is staggering. Each year one million …

What are seizures?

The terms epilepsy and seizure are often confined. On the one hand, a seizure is the resulting behavior or set of behaviors, …

Can seizures be controlled?

Treatment of epileptic seizures is usually accomplished through medication management. Antiepileptic medications work by …